In this video you see a deep-well pump that, instead of requiring 240 volts and a heavy submersible motor, instead uses compressed air and a very simple mechanism:
As the video demonstrates, you would not use this pump to plug directly into a residential plumbing system because of the air mixed with the water. But for filling a tank in a remote area it could provide a rugged alternative.
This page has a nice cutaway showing what it going on inside a pump like this:
More info: The Amazing Submersible BRUMBY Pump