Cixi started out as one of Emperor Xianfeng’s many concubines, but she wound up ruling China from behind a screen for more than 45 years. Her decisions toward the end were factors in the eventual collapse of the Qing dynasty. But in spite of her long and notorious rein, much of what we know about her boils down to rumor and gossip.
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Episode link: China’s Empress Dowager Cixi
Holly did the research on this one:
- Bensen, Amanda. “Cixi: The Woman Behind the Throne.” Smithsonian. March 1, 2008. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/da-cixi.html
- Cultural China. http://www.cultural-china.com/
- Edwards, Owen. “Presenting China’s Last Empress Dowager.” Smithsonian. October 2011. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/Presenting-Chinas-Last-Empress-Dowager.html
- Gao, James Z. “Historical Dictionary of Modern China.” Scarecrow Press. 2009. http://books.google.com/books?id=dVzLG1aqlNkC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
- Kwong, Luke S.K. “Chinese Politics at the Crossroads: Reflections on the Hundred Days Reform of 1898.” Cambridge University Press. Modern Asian Studies. Vol. 34, No. 3. pp. 663-695. July 2000. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/313144?uid=3739832&uid=2&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21102218078327
- Lim, Louisa. “Who murdered China’s emperor 100 years ago?” NPR. Nov. 14, 2008. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=96993694
- Qi, Lin. “The Poisoned Palace — Mystery of Last Emperor’s Death.” China Daily. Nov. 21, 2008. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2008-11/21/content_7226663.htm
- Scott, Dr. Howard. “The Second Opium War 1856-1860.” http://www.howardscott.net/4/Shameen_A_Colonial_Heritage/Files/Documentation/Second_Opium_War.pdf
- Sit, Tony. “The Life of Empress Cixi.” China Now. 2001. Republished by the Society for Anglo-Chinese Understanding. http://www.sacu.org/cixi.html
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